What is A PWM Solar Controller?


What is a PWM solar controller?
The full name of PWM is Pulse Width Modulation (Pulse Width Modulation), which is an analog control method that modulates the bias of the transistor base or MOS transistor gate according to the change of the corresponding load to realize the change of the transistor or MOS transistor conduction time. In this way, the output of the switching regulated power supply can be changed. PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) solar controller is a commonly used circuit in solar panel power system. It is a kind of energy generated by solar panels through charging management, multi-level charging protection, and energy saving. circuit.
PWM Solar Controller: It is a current controlled type controller that will switch the input current of the photovoltaic array in PWM pulse mode. As the battery becomes more fully charged, the pulse width will shorten. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) refers to the digital output of an analog circuit controlled by a microprocessor, which is a method of digitally encoding the level of an analog signal. By digitally controlling analog circuits, system cost and power consumption can be greatly reduced, and many microcontrollers incorporate PWM controllers.
The characteristic of sine wave pulse width modulation is that the output pulse width columns are not equal, the width changes according to the sine law, and the output waveform is close to sine wave. Sine wave pulse width modulation is also known as SPWM. The key of this technology is to generate pulse width according to the control signal. PWM stands for Pulse Width Modulation, a method used to regulate charge. Its function is to pull down the voltage of the solar array to close to the voltage of the battery to ensure that the battery is properly charged. It uses electronic switches (MOSFETs) to connect and disconnect the solar panel from the battery. By switching the MOSFET at high frequency with various pulse widths, a constant voltage can be maintained.
A PWM solar controller self-regulates by varying the width (length) and frequency of the pulses sent to the battery. PWM controllers are suitable for small solar systems. It provides a low-cost solution and is typically used when the solar cell temperature is between 45°C and 75°C. The principle of a PWM solar controller is very simple, at its heart is a microcontroller and some powerful electronics. The solar panel supplies power to the mains through an inverter, and at the same time, in the case of sufficient sunlight, it can actually generate electricity, which is then monitored by a PWM solar controller. When sufficient sunlight is felt on the solar panel, the PWM solar controller algorithms control the voltage and current generated by the photovoltaic cells by reducing the voltage to the cells.

In the case of high voltage provided by the solar panel, the PWM solar controller will keep the voltage within a reasonable range to prevent overcharging. Therefore, the output current can be controlled at a safe level. The circuit of the PWM solar controller protects the solar panel by injecting current. When the output of the solar panel is low, the PHM solar controller will adaptively adjust the voltage to ensure the continuous output current of the panel. Therefore, a PWM solar controller is a very effective controller for optimal charge management and protection of solar panels.
PWM solar controllers have many features, the most common of which is that they allow fully automatic control. When any situation occurs during charging, its controller will automatically stop charging and protect to prevent damage to the solar panel. In addition, PWM solar controllers can provide real-time status reporting through charge status indicators. At the same time, it also has a power adjustment function to ensure that the battery is replaced with a new one after it is fully charged.

In solar engineering, PWM solar controller is very important. It can greatly improve the life of solar panels and batteries, so that solar panels and batteries can provide sufficient power supply for automotive applications, outdoor lighting and other application scenarios. In short, through the working principle of the PWM pulse width modulation solar controller, we can see that the working state of the solar panel is fully controlled. At the same time, the PWM solar controller also has the advantages of automatic control, all-round protection, and real-time status display. Thus providing a reliable control guarantee for solar power generation projects.
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